John P. A. Ioannidis is in the Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece, and Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, Tufts-New England Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Dr. Ioannidis wrote:
- There is increasing concern that in modern research, false findings may be the majority or even the vast majority of published research claims. This should not be surprising. It can be proven that most claimed research findings are false. ·
- Most research findings are false for most research designs and for most fields.
- Claimed research findings may often be simply accurate measures of the prevailing bias.