PARIS: Researchers presented evidence on Wednesday for the existence of cancer stem cells, with three different studies seeking to end a decades-old scientific dispute about how tumours grow.
“The hypothesis (that cancer stem cells exist) has been around now for some time. Hopefully these three papers now make an end to the discussion,” Dutch researcher Hugo Snippert told AFP.
All the studies were conducted on lab mice.
Some experts have maintained that tumours are comprised of masses of cancer cells that are all the same, and all dividing.
But Snippert said the latest papers clearly show a hierarchy of cells in tumours, with different functions — including stem cells that act as cancer cell factories.
Stem cells are infant cells that develop into specialised tissues of the body, touted by medicine as a future source from which to replenish damaged tissue.
In the case of intestinal cancer, a healthy stem cell mutates to create a “cell of origin” from which a tumour grows, said Snippert. The tumour contains stem cells which then create new cancer cells.
“Since the cancer stem cells are so similar to normal stem cells, most treatments also harm the normal stem cells,” he said.
“That is why it is important now to have a look at cancer stem cells, comparing them to normal stem cells to find the differences.”
Focusing on incurable brain tumours, a US-based research team said they had found a subset of cells that appear to be the source of new tumour growth after chemotherapy.
“This study serves as a proof of principle that in at least some solid tumours functional cancer stem cells exist,” researcher Luis Parada of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center told AFP.
Also writing in Nature, a separate team in Belgium and the UK found a sub-population of tumour cells with stem-like properties in skin cancer.
“Taken together these reports provide evidence that point towards the existence of cells that may represent cancer stem cells,” said a Nature press statement.
“Better understanding of the cancer stem cells will be critical for re-evaluation of existing therapies and development of new ones,” added Parada.